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View Packets Tournament Editor
2009 ACF Fall Tossups by CMU + LASA A
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In the second act of this opera, one character returns a gold coin to another. That act opens at the inn of Lillas Pastia and sees Dancaire and Remendado inform the title character that they must dispose of their contraband. The "Card Song" plays in this opera's third act and is sung by the protagonist's friends Frasquita and Mercedes, after the male protagonist sings the "Flower Song." The "Toreador" song is sung by the bullfighter Escamillo, who is shot at by Don Jose before he stabs the title gypsy, who proclaims that "love is a rebellious bird" in her "Habanera." For 10 points, name this Georges Bizet opera about a Spanish gypsy cigarette girl.
Answer: Carmen
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The narrator of this novel hangs up on a character after being asked to send out some tennis shoes. Another character in this novel talks about "Oggsford College" and is alleged to have fixed the World Series. The narrator of this novel becomes involved with a professional golfer who cheated to win her first tournament. A man known as Owl-Eyes is one of the few who shows up at the title character's funeral after he is shot in his pool by George Wilson, who incorrectly believes that the car that killed Myrtle Wilson was driven by the title character rather than Daisy Buchanan. For 10 points, name this novel narrated by Nick Carraway, a Jazz age work by F. Scott Fitzgerald.
Answer: The Great Gatsby
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This hero destroys a house with 150 women inside for their mutilation of Derbforgaill in one story. This figure is spared by Cu Roi in a beheading contest at Bricriu's feast, inspiring the tale of Gawain and the Green Knight. This figure kills Connla, his son by Aife, and he has an affair with the fairy Fand, sparking his wife Emer's jealousy. Originally known as Setanta, this son of Lugh is trained by Scathach but meets his demise after holding off Medb's army, years after he obtains the spear Gae Bulg. For 10 points, name this hero of the Ulster Cycle of Irish myth who obtains his name by killing Culain's hound.
Answer: Cu Chulainn [accept Setanta until mentioned]
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This man espoused his socialist ideas in Wealth in the Hands of the Few, and like William McKinley, this president served in the Army of West Virginia during the Civil War. A city and department in Paraguay are named for this man because he arbitrated the end of the War of the Triple Alliance. Although he was overridden, this president vetoed the Bland-Allison Act, and the Great Railroad Strike occurred during his administration. For 10 points, name this one term president from Ohio whose victory over Samuel Tilden in the Election of 1876 resulted in the end of Reconstruction.
Answer: Rutherford Birchard Hayes
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One character on this show is defeated by Shunk Wugga during his attempt to get his father to sign a permission slip so he can present evidence before The Swollen Eyeballs. In one episode of this show, a girl gets her foot stuck in the title character's lawn while selling cookies. One character on this show often replaces his brain with food, and recurring characters on this show include the Almighty Tallest, the leaders of the Irkens. Dib is the brother of the antisocial Gaz on this show, and attempts to stop the machinations of the title character and his robot GIR. For 10 points, name this Nickelodeon show about the title alien's bumbling attempts at world domination.
Answer: Invader Zim
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Eclampsia is treated with this element's sulfate, and the bioluminescence reaction in fireflies utilizes ions of this element. Liquid titanium tetrachloride is dropped on this element's molten form to make metallic titanium in the Kroll process. Its blockage of NMDA receptors allows for sodium and potassium ion flux in cells, and this element is commonly found in certain chemical reagents existing in a Schlenck equilibrium. In its divalent cationic form, it acts to stabilize the grooves of DNA, and its sulfate form is also known as Epsom salt. This cation is also found coordinated to the porphyrin ring of chlorophyll. For 10 points, name this metal with symbol Mg.
Answer: magnesium [or Mg before mentioned]
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Despite its name, Buridan's ass was first formulated in this man's On the Heavens. His works include a discussion of the essence of living things called On the Soul and a group of six works on logic known as the Organon. He also distinguished material, formal, efficient, and final causes. One of his works introduced ideas such as anagnorisis, hamartia and mimesis. Aside from the Poetics, he wrote a work which introduced the idea of the prime mover. For 10 points, name this founder of the Lyceum, a philosopher who taught Alexander the Great and wrote the Metaphysics.
Answer: Aristotle
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Brocard's problem asks which outputs of this function are one less than a perfect square, and Christian Kramp was the first to use the notation commonly used to denote this function. By Stirling's approximation, the natural log of this function on n is equal to n natural log of n all minus n. It is extended to all the complex numbers except the non-positive integers by the gamma function, and the Taylor series of e to the x features this function acting in the denominator of the polynomial terms. This function can be defined recursively as n times this function for n minus one. For 10 points, name this function denoted by an exclamation mark.
Answer: factorial
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This battle was preceded by the defeat of armies under Henry Hawley and John Cope at Falkirk and Prestonpans, respectively. One side in this battle camped near the Nairn River, while the other force attempted to make a night attack on them but failed. This battle was preceded by a bombardment from Belford's artillery and in it, Barrel's and Munro's regiments received the brunt of the attack. Boggy ground forced the Chattan group to move right during this battle thereby forcing much of one army against Jame's Wolfe's forces, and it saw the use of improved bayonet technique to overcome the shields of the highlanders. For 10 points, name this 1746 battle, a victory for the Duke of Cumberland over Charles Edward Stuart, better known as Bonnie Prince Charlie.
Answer: Battle of Culloden
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Loglan was designed in order to investigate this theory, although it failed to produce a definite result. Eric Lenneberg developed a framework to test this theory with experiments involving color terminology. Steven Pinker criticized this theory as the product of "long-time leanings toward mysticism." One of its namesakes illustrated it with an example involving so-called "empty gasoline drums," and argued for it by contending that Hopi speakers have a fundamentally different concept of time from English speakers. For 10 points, identify this principle which states that one's language affects one's thought and perception.
Answer: Sapir-Whorf hypothesis [accept linguistic relativity]
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This author wrote about an innocent silk-winder whose journey connects the sordid lives of four others in a poem that coined the phrase "God's in His heaven All's right with the world." This author of Pippa Passes wrote a poem in which the title painter urges "Grow old along with me! The best is yet to be." This poet documented an Italian murder in his The Ring and the Book, and included "Rabbi Ben Ezra" among his dramatic monologues. One of this author's poems concerns a character who had a "heart too soon made glad," and whose portrait by Fra Pandolf is "painted on the wall." For 10 points, name this English poet of "My Last Duchess," the husband of Elizabeth Barret.
Answer: Robert Browning
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This artist depicted Jesus holding the title fruit while in his mother's arms in Madonna of the Pomegranate. Another circular depiction of Jesus by this artist is Madonna of the Magnificat. He painted himself into his Adoration of the Magi but moved away from Christian themes in a work which is bordered on one side by a red-cloaked man about to pick an orange from a tree. Another work shows a nymph in the process of throwing a cloak over the nudity of the titular figure standing on a shell. For 10 points, name this creator of Primavera and The Birth of Venus.
Answer: Alessandro Botticelli
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In one work, this author parodied the condescending Henry James as "Mr. Nixon." The title character of that work by this author writes "medallions" in an attempt to "resuscitate the dead art of poetry." Another poem by this man consists of the lines "The apparition of these faces in the crowd; Petals on a wet, black bough." This author of "In a Station of the Metro" and "Hugh Selwyn Mauberley" translated several works of the Chinese poet Li Po. This author included Chinese characters in a work that has "Rock-Drill" and "Pisan" sections and was largely written in an Italian jail. For 10 points, name this fascist sympathizer, an American modernist poet who wrote The Cantos.
Answer: Ezra Weston Loomis Pound
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This ruler set up vassal kings with the title Syenessis in Cilicia, and this ruler subjugated the Massagetai whose warrior queen Tomyris may have killed him. Harpagus defected to the army of this man, who won a victory over Nabonidus. This ruler won a battle against his grandfather, Astyages, at a site where he later founded the city of Pasargadae, and after the Battle of Thymbra he was able to capture Sardis from Croesus, the king of Lydia. This ruler freed the Jews from captivity when he conquered Babylonia, and he also overthrew the Medes. For 10 points, name this man who founded the Achaemenid Empire of Persia.
Answer: Cyrus the Great [or Cyrus II of Persia]
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Deviation from optimal pH or ionic strength results in star activity in this class of proteins. Dcm and Dam methylation in bacteria introduces resistance to the activity of these proteins, which are used to analyze RFLPs. Engineered constructs with multiple cloning sites can be acted on by many of these enzymes. Examples of these enzymes common to digests are XbaI [x b a one] and BamHI [bam h one], and the action of these enzymes results in the formation of either blunt or sticky ends. For 10 points, HindIII [hin d three] and EcoRI [eeko r one] are what types of bacterial enzymes that are useful for cleaving DNA at specific sites in biological experiments?
Answer: restriction enzymes [or restriction endonucleases]
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The Askaryan effect can generate this phenomenon, whose alteration by a periodic grating is the Smith-Purcell effect. Hankel functions were utilized by Ilya Frank and Igor Tamm to develop a formula calculating the intensity of this effect. It occurs when an electromagnetic field in a local medium is disrupted, releasing photons that constructively interfere and is often considered an analogue of a sonic boom. For 10 points, name this effect named for its Russian discoverer which occurs when particles propagate faster than the local speed of light through a medium, generating an oft-seen blue color.
Answer: Cherenkov radiation /effect
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This island's north is marked by the Kyrenia Mountains, while renowned painted churches can be found in its southerly Troodos Mountains. Important cities here include Famagusta and Limassol, and it was home to a cult center of Aphrodite at Paphos. Divided between north and south by the Green Line, for 10 points, name this island with capital Nicosia, marked by ethnic strife between Greek and Turkish inhabitants.
Answer: Cyprus
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One character created by this author writes a Ulysses retelling entitled The House on Eccles Street. Before creating the Australian author Elizabeth Costello, this novelist wrote of a Third Bureau officer named Colonel Joll, whose cruelty and decisiveness shocks The Magistrate. In one of this author's novels, Lucy is raped by some thugs after her professor father David Lurie is forced to leave the university when he seduces a student. Another of his characters is a hare-lipped gardener who travels to Prince Albert to deliver his mother's ashes. For 10 points, name this South African author of Disgrace, Waiting for the Barbarians, and The Life and Times of Michael K.
Answer: John Maxwell Coetzee
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This book closes with a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of Spanish and Swiss forces. Chapter twenty of this work concludes that the best fortress is to not be hated, while chapter nineteen examines the downfall of Roman emperors like Pertinax. Chapter eight praises the example of Agathocles, and another leader praised in this work is Cesare Borgia. Chapter eighteen of this work advises that a ruler should be both a fox and a lion and feign many good traits rather than have them. For 10 points, name this political tract which begins with a dedication to Lorenzo de' Medici, written by Niccolo Machiavelli.
Answer: The Prince [or Il Principe]
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The winter following this engagement is known as the Forage War, and this battle ended with John Sullivan's capture of Nassau Hall. At a critical point in this engagement, John Cadwalader arrived with militiamen to support the fleeing forces of Hugh Mercer, who the British mistook for George Washington. The night before this defeat for Charles Mawhood, the victorious side had won the Battle of Assunpink Creek, and it occurred about a week after the Battle of Trenton. Resulting in the British fleeing from New Jersey, for 10 points, name this 1777 victory for George Washington in an Ivy League college town.
Answer: Battle of Princeton
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One character in this novel has written a textbook which is used by Gaston Godin at the Beardsley College for Women. The narrator of this work believes he is being followed by an Aztec Red Convertible driven by Inspector Trappe. The narrator of this novel stays in the Enchanted Hunters Hotel after driving to Camp Q. In this novel, Charlotte is run over by a car after reading her husband's diary, and the title character eventually marries Dick Schiller after running away with by the playwright Clare Quilty. For 10 points, name this work in which Dolores Haze is the subject of Humbert Humbert's proclivity for "nymphets," a novel by Vladimir Nabokov.
Answer: Lolita
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A Rindler observer near a Cauchy horizon sees an analogue of this phenomenon due to the Unruh effect. The power of this phenomenon decreases with increasing source mass, implying that currently-evaporating sources must be small. Its associated temperature is proportional to the surface gravity of the source, and it arises when one particle from a pair production event tunnels out through the event horizon. For 10 points, identify this type of thermal radiation that causes mass loss in black holes, named for the British physicist who wrote A Brief History of Time.
Answer: Bekenstein-Hawking radiation or effect [prompt on "black-body radiation"]
 
2009 ACF Fall Bonuses by CMU + LASA A
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Maria Nagaya's acceptance of this man as her son helped solidify his power, and it is believed that his real name was Gregory Otrepyev. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this czar who claimed to be the son of Ivan IV, and whose ashes were shot out of a cannon towards Poland after he was deposed by Vasily Shuisky in 1606.
Answer: False Dmitriy I
[10] The reign of the first False Dmitri came during this period of Russian history which began after the death of Ivan the Terrible's son Feodor.
Answer: Time of Troubles [or Smutnoye Vremya]
[10] The Time of Troubles came to an end with the ascension of this first Romanov czar, the son of Patriarch Filaret.
Answer: Michael of Russia [Michael I Fyodorovich Romanov]
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This work ends with Pentheus getting torn to pieces by the titular characters, among them his mother, Agave. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this play in which the son of Semele exacts his revenge on the family of Cadmus.
Answer: The Bacchae
[10] The Bacchae was written by this Greek tragedian who wrote of the fates of Cassandra and Hecuba in The Trojan Women.
Answer: Euripides
[10] In this Euripides play, the title wife of Jason poisons Glauce with a golden robe and kills her children before fleeing to Athens.
Answer: Medea
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Name these dams of the Americas, for 10 points each:,
[10] Gordon Kaufmann designed the powerhouse for this dam, which was constructed under the supervision of Frank Crowe and was originally known as Boulder Dam.
Answer: Hoover Dam
[10] Construction of this dam on the Columbia River, which created Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, required nearly 2,000 miles of piping to cool the concrete and keep it from cracking.
Answer: Grand Coulee Dam
[10] Operation Mymba Kuera saved animals from the area flooded by this dam which submerged Guaira Falls and provides roughly 25% of Brazil's electricity.
Answer: Itaipu Dam
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Answer the following about a quantity from physics for 10 points each.,
[10] Symbolized I, this rotational equivalent of mass is given by mass times radius-squared for a point mass orbiting in a circle. Its product with angular velocity is angular momentum.
Answer: first mass moment of inertia [prompt on "angular mass"]
[10] This theorem states that symmetries lead to conservation laws, thus positing the conservation of angular momentum in rotation invariant systems.
Answer: Noether's first or symmetry theorem
[10] Under certain conditions, this theorem, sometimes named for Steiner, states that an object's moment of inertia about an axis equals its moment about its center of mass plus m r-squared, where r is the distance from the axis to the center of mass.
Answer: parallel axis theorem [prompt on "Steiner's theorem"]
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Examples of these properties include boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, and osmotic pressure. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this term for properties of solutions that depend on the concentration of dissolved substances.
Answer: colligative properties
[10] This number, symbolized i, gives the extent to which a particular solute species affects colligative properties. It is greater than 1 for salts that dissociate, such as NaCl, and is named for the first Nobel winner in Chemistry.
Answer: van't Hoff factor
[10] Also named for van't Hoff is an equation setting the temperature derivative of the natural log of this quantity equal to change in enthalpy divided by the ideal gas constant times temperature squared.
Answer: equilibrium constant [or K-e-q; prompt on "K"]
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One character in this novel utters the phrase ""The thing's hollow, it goes on forever, and, oh my God, it's full of stars!" For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this novel in which Dr. David Bowman becomes the Star Child and destroys all of earth's nuclear weapons.
Answer: 2001: A Space Odyssey
[10] This man, whose third law of prediction claims that "any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic," wrote 2001: A Space Odyssey.
Answer: Arthur C. Clarke
[10] 2001: A Space Odyssey is an expanded version of this Clarke short story, in which a pyramid shaped beacon left on the moon stops transmitting when it is discovered.
Answer: "The Sentinel" [or "Sentinel of Eternity"]
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The aria "If you are with me" is often misattributed to this composer because it appeared in his Notebook for Anna Magdalena. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this composer who included a flute trio sonata and two ricecars in The Musical Offering and wrote the Coffee Cantata, the French Overture, and the Italian Concerto.
Answer: Johann Sebastian Bach
[10] Bach's works for this piped church instrument include Preludes and Fugues, Toccatas and Fugues, Fantasias and Fugues, and Passacaglias and Fugues.
Answer: organ
[10] This Bach work was begun after Augustus II's death and includes "Kyrie," "Gloria," and "Symbolum Nicenum," which was edited and performed by his son Carl Philipp Emanuel.
Answer: Mass in B Minor [or Messe in Ti-Moll]
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This poem notes that "blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay" and that wise men do not commit the titular action "because their words had forked no lightening." For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this poem in which the speaker commands "Rage, rage against the dying of the light."
Answer: "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night"
[10] This Welsh poet of "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night" also wrote the radio play Under Milkwood and the poem "And Death Shall Have No Dominion."
Answer: Dylan Thomas
[10] Thomas included his story "A Visit to Grandpa's" in a collection whose title is a parody of this other work. An early draft in this novel was Stephen Hero, and in it Father Dolan punishes the protagonist for breaking his glasses.
Answer: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
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Its subtitle is "An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology." For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this 1943 work which distinguishes between the "in itself" and "for itself" forms of the first title concept.
Answer: Being and Nothingness [or L'Etre et le neant]
[10] Being and Nothingness was written by this existentialist philosopher, who also wrote Existentialism is a Humanism.
Answer: Jean-Paul Sartre
[10] Chapter 2 of Being and Nothingness discusses this concept, which he defines as the denial of the absolute freedom which every human possesses. It is sometimes translated as "self-deception."
Answer: bad faith [or mauvaise foi]
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This entity's A-band consists only of thick filaments, while its I-band contains thin filaments centered on Z-discs. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this unit defined as the region between two Z-lines in muscle fibers.
Answer: sarcomere
[10] The thick filaments of a sarcomere consist of long myosin chains, which act in opposition to this other major protein involved in muscle contraction.
Answer: actin
[10] This protein associates directly with actin to prevent myosin-binding in a resting state. The influx of calcium ions promotes its release prior to muscle contraction.
Answer: tropomyosin [do not accept "troponin"]
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Prior to 1957, this state held its congressional and gubernatorial elections in September rather than November, leading to a popular saying that "as [this state] goes, so goes the nation." For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this state, whose important politicians have included Edward Kent and Ed Muskie.
Answer: Maine
[10] James Farley quipped "as Maine goes, so goes Vermont" after this Kansas governor won only those two states in a crushing defeat by FDR in the 1936 presidential election.
Answer: Alf Landon
[10] Another famous Maine politician was this man who left the Democratic Party due to opposing the Kansas-Nebraska Act. He later became Lincoln's first Vice-President.
Answer: Hannibal Hamlin
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
Guan Yin is the female form of one of these figures known as Avalokitesvara. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name these figures who opt out of personal enlightenment in favor of Buddhahood for all, particularly venerated in Mahayana Buddhism for undergoing the ten bhumis.
Answer: bodhisattva
[10] The bodhisattvas Chenrezig and Avalokitesvara are embodied by Tenzin Gyatso, the fourteenth of these individuals. These individuals are the spiritual leaders of Tibetan Buddhism.
Answer: Dalai Lama
[10] This sutra explains that the end goal for bodhisattvas is not emptiness, but bliss. This sutra named for a flower is the basis for the Nichiren sect.
Answer: Lotus Sutra [or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma; or Saddharma Pundarika Sutra]
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His older brother Bernard discovered a namesake process for cloud seeding. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this author who wrote about Malachi Constant in The Sirens of Titan and about Billy Pilgrim getting unstuck in time in Slaughterhouse 5.
Answer: Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.
[10] In this Vonnegut novel, the narrator Jonah visits the island of San Lorenzo while researching a book about Hiroshima. In this novel, Felix Hoenniker's ice-nine destroys the world.
Answer: Cat's Cradle
[10] This religion featured in Cat's Cradle is practiced widely on San Lorenzo. It is based on "foma" and includes concepts like "granfaloons" and the touching of feet.
Answer: Bokononism
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It states that for an + bn = cn, there are no integer values of a, b, and c when n is greater than two. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this hard-to-prove theorem, named for a French mathematician.
Answer: Fermat's Last Theorem
[10] Ken Ribet proved the epsilon conjecture, which showed that a proof of this doubly-eponymous conjecture would be enough to prove Fermat's Last Theorem. It proposes that all elliptic curves are modular.
Answer: Taniyama-Shimura-Weil conjecture [prompt on "modularity theorem"]
[10] By showing that the elliptic curve corresponding to a solution of Fermat's equation was both modular and non-modular, this man is credited with proving the theorem.
Answer: Andrew Wiles
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In this battle, John Cutts led the attack on the namesake town, and a cavalry attack split the army at Lutzingen from that led by Camille, comte de Tallard. For 10 points each:,
[10] Identify this 1704 battle, a victory for the Duke of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy.
Answer: Battle of Blenheim
[10] The Battle of Blenheim occurred during this conflict, known as Queen Anne's War in the Americas, which was sparked by the death of the Habsburg king Charles II.
Answer: War of the Spanish Succession
[10] Eugene and Marlborough achieved a Pyrrhic victory against Villars and Boufflers in this 1709 battle, taking 22,000 casualties. It began after Allied forces attacked the fortress at Mons.
Answer: Battle of Malplaquet
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This poet wrote "my feet seemed to me unacceptable like two decrepit firemen" in his "Ode to My Socks." For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this communist Chilean poet of Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair who included "The Heights of Macchu Picchu" in his most famous collection.
Answer: Pablo Neruda [or Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto]
[10] This Neruda collection includes "The Heights of Macchu Picchu" and purports to chronicle the history of Latin America through sections that include "The Earth's Name is Juan" and "The Great Ocean."
Answer: Canto General [or General Song]
[10] This 17th century Spanish nun lived in Mexico and wrote poetry like "Stubborn Men" and "First Dream." She wrote an apology for her writing in the letter "Reply to Sor Filotea."
Answer: Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz [or Juana Ramirez de Asbaje]
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Name these Van Gogh paintings, for 10 points each.,
[10] Among the most prominent features of this painting are the red walls, the three overhead lights, and the pool table in the middle of the titular establishment.
Answer: The Night Cafe [or Le Cafe de nuit]
[10] A woman on the right of this painting is pouring some black liquid into four cups, and three figures on the left are sharing a plate of food on a table dimly lit by an oil lamp above.
Answer: The Potato Eaters [or De Aardappeleters]
[10] This painting by Van Gogh depicts the swirling night sky over the village of Saint-Remy, as some tall cypress trees can be seen.
Answer: The Starry Night [or De Sterrennacht]
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This god was often depicted spearing Apep in the form of a sea animal. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this god of the desert who became the chief deity of the Hyksos. This husband of Nephthys lost boating and sexual contests to Horus.
Answer: Seth [or Sutekh; or Seteh]
[10] Seth is notable for hacking up this god and floating his pieces down the Nile. This god's wife Isis put him back together, and he then presided over the afterlife.
Answer: Osiris [or various transliterations with A, U, or W]
[10] Nephthys cheated on Seth with Osiris to produce this deity, a jackal-headed god who balances a deceased's heart against a feather to determine their fate.
Answer: Anubis [or Inpu]
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Identify these classical leaders from their naval achievements, for 10 points each.,
[10] After the fall of the Second Triumvirate, this Roman, along with Cleopatra, lost to Octavian's forces at Actium.
Answer: Mark Antony [or Marcus Antonius]
[10] This Roman served under Octavian and was responsible for Antony's defeat at Actium. He later married Octavian's daughter, Julia the Elder.
Answer: Marcus Agrippa
[10] This Athenian admiral at Artemisium and Salamis was largely responsible for the Persian defeat in their second invasion.
Answer: Themistocles
Average difficulty: 0Average quality: 0Category: None
It cannot lie above the line y=x, which is known as the line of perfect equality. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this economic curve which plots the income disparity in a population.
Answer: Lorenz curve
[10] The area between the Lorenz curve and the line of perfect equality is used to calculate this number, which is named after an Italian statistician.
Answer: Gini coefficient [or Gini index]
[10] This economist developed his namesake principle, also known as the 80-20 rule, after observing income disparity in Italy. He is also known for a certain type of optimality.
Answer: Vilfredo Pareto
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In one of this director's films, Emilie Ekdahl marries a bishop, who burns to death and later haunts the title characters. For 10 points each:,
[10] Name this director of the aforementioned Fanny and Alexander, who also directed a movie about Isak Borg's journey and reevaluation of life, Wild Strawberries.
Answer: Ernst Ingmar Bergman
[10] Bergman is better known for directing this film in which Antonius Block, a knight who returns from the Crusades to a plague-riddled Sweden, plays a chess match with Death.
Answer: The Seventh Seal [or Det sjunde inseglet]
[10] Bergman has also created an adaptation of this Mozart opera, which features the Queen of the Night, Sarastro, Papageno, and Tamino, who is entrusted with the title magical instrument.
Answer: The Magic Flute [or Die Zauberflote]

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